January 2010 Archives

Lesson #9 - The End of Imperial China

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Our attention shifts from Russia to China today. As in Russia, the imperial era will come to an end. From there, however, the two nations follow different paths. It will be almost four decades before communism rules over China under Mao Zedong. Today, we'll consider the end of imperialism and the struggle between the Nationalists and Communists. (You don't get to learn the end of the story until after World War II, as the two sides form an uneasy alliance to fight against the Japanese beginning in 1937.)


The End of Imperial China: When we last left the Qing, their empire was weakened due to both internal rebellion and foreign intervention. Here are some of the key events in the years that follow... Key terms and people are in bold.

1911 - Pu Yi, the last Qing Emperor is overthrown. (Here's the movie link. It won 9 Oscars!)

1912 - Sun Yixian is made president of the new Republic of China.

Sun calls for "Three Principles of the People"
  • nationalism - end to foreign control
  • people's rights - democracy
  • people's livelihood - economic security
His party is the Kuomintang, also known as the Nationalist Party. Sun passes power to General Yuan Shikai, and he basically tries to take over everything and sparks civil war. Warlords ruled various lands in China for the next few years.

1919 - May Fourth Movement - Mass demonstrations showed China's anger over the unfavorable terms of the Treaty of Versailles, particularly that German territory considered to be Chinese was turned over to the Japanese. Many see this as the birth of modern nationalism in China.

1921 - Chinese Communist Party is organized by Mao Zedong and others in Shanghai.

1925 - Jiang Jieshi assumes leadership of the Nationalists after Sun dies. His Kuomintang forces launch raids and attacks against the Communists over the next few years, particularly 1927.

1933 - Communist forces begin the Long March, a 6000-mile journey lasting more than a year.

1937 - Japan invades China, and the struggle between Nationalists and Communists is temporarily set aside to face a common enemy.


The Long March - We'll wrap up today with a little "field trip." (Before the building expanded, we used to take a whole block and do this outside, regardless of weather. I've gotten old and soft since then.) We'll stay inside and take our own very small version of the march today...

By the way, there's been a good deal of recent scholarship questioning some of the claims of the Long March. Rather than worrying about exactly how many miles it was, instead focus on its symbolic value for the Chinese Communists in terms of rallying support and glorifying their past. (Maybe you can think of similar events in US history. Valley Forge?)


HOMEWORK for next session - Monday, February 1st

Nothing fancy here. Please begin your reading in Chapter 31 with Section 1, "Postwar Uncertainty." (pp. 897 - 901) You'll notice that this is a different kind of section from what we have been reading lately...

Lesson #8 - Stalin's Russia

We'll continue examining the changes that take place in Russia (by now the Soviet Union) during the rule of Joseph Stalin. Tomorrow, we'll shift our attention to China in the years between the World Wars.

After Lenin: If you didn't get enough on him yesterday, consult the Lenin Internet Archive. After having been shot and later suffering a series of strokes, Lenin died in 1924. The leading candidates to replace Lenin as leader of the Communist Party were Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin. Despite Lenin's "Testament" and caution that Stalin "has concentrated enormous power in his hands, and I am not sure that he always knows how to use that power with sufficient caution," Stalin gained total command of the Communist Party by 1928.

Stalin's Russia: We'll consider a number of aspects of Stalin's rule today. As a backdrop, keep in mind that this is perhaps the best example of a totalitarian state in the 20th century. 

Here are the key traits of totalitarianism as listed in the text:

  • Dynamic Leader
  • Ideology
  • State Control of Individuals
  • Methods of Enforcement
  • Modern Technology
  • State Control of Society
  • Dictatorship and One-Party Rule
Think about how Stalin uses these various traits in creating and sustaining his rule.

Let's get started with an overview of Stalin's rule with a quick DBQ activity - "Stalin: Evaluation of His Leadership."

In addition, here are a few things we need to be sure we touch on:

  • rise to power - feud with Trotsky
  • Industrialization - Five-Year Plans
  • Collectivization - kulaks
  • Great Purge - the "Great Terror"
  • Cult of Personality 
I'll show you some images from the book, The Commissar Vanishes as well. Here is a website that shows you some images from the book.

Here are those other links from yesterday's blog entry:



Interviewing the Russians: If time permits, we'll try to close with one more activity. I'll give you a card with an identity and some key points on it. You'll pair up with another "person" and interview each other. Each of you should, in character, ask questions of the other character. (I'd recommend swapping cards while doing this to help you think of questions.)

Here are the roles:
  • Nicholas II
  • Soldier at the front in 1916
  • Alexander Kerensky
  • Vladimir Illyich Ulyanov (Lenin)
  • Priest of the Orthodox Church
  • Worker of the Petrograd Soviet
  • Lev Davidovich Bronstein (Trotsky)
  • Joseph Dzhugashvili (Stalin)
Note that the dates next to their names on the cards are NOT their life spans. It typically is referring to their time in power.


HOMEWORK for tomorrow - Friday, January 29th

Finish up your reading in Chapter 30 with Section 4, "Nationalism in India and Southwest Asia." (pp. 887 - 891)


Lesson #7 - Russia: From Czars to Communism

Our main goal for today will be to make sense of Russia's transition from the Romanov Dynasty to a totalitarian, communist state known as the Soviet Union, or the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

As I've mentioned, I've taught this material in a couple different classes over the years. I'll share some of my own notes with you so that you can look more in depth at the issues if you would like.


Russia: From Czar to Communism - Initially, let's back it up to the pre-WWI period in Russia. For most of the 19th century, Russia was ruled by czars named Alexander and Nicholas... Here is a set of notes on The Last Czars. Take a look at these for a minute to get a feel for the challenges and issues facing Russia at the time. We can talk about those.

Czar Nicholas II is the last of the Romanovs to rule Russia. Let's take a look at my Nicholas II - Notes and see some of the ways in which he is accused of weakening Russia. Be sure you understand "Bloody Sunday" and the role of Rasputin here.

As you certainly have seen by now, 1917 is the key year for Russia. It is here that Russia undergoes a pair of revolutions. Let's take a closer look at the The Russian Revolutions of 1917. Following these revolutions, Russia (as you read) fights a brutal civil war which ends with the Bolsheviks and Lenin in charge.

Communism in Russia: We'll have you more closely examine some of the ideas that Lenin and the Bolsheviks put into place in Russia. Considering this Introduction to Communism and your reading, as well as your own background knowledge, try your hand at answering these questions.

  • In your opinion, what made communism a good match for Russia? What made it a bad fit?
  • How did the communism Lenin put in place differ from the vision of Marx?
  • Should Lenin be considered a communist? Why or why not?
  • What, if anything, could have been done to make communism more successful in Russia?

Tomorrow, we'll turn our attention to the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin. In preparation for that, you might take a look at some of these resources.


Homework for tomorrow - Thursday, January 28th

Continue your reading in Chapter 30 with Section 3, "Imperial China Collapses." (pp. 882 - 886)

Lesson #6 - World War II "Mini-Lessons" - Day 2

After the reading quiz, we'll continue through the remainder of the "mini-lessons" on World War I today. Then, we'll check in on those two handouts on the WWI poetry and the genocides.
Teaching the Great War - Lesson Plans: Here are links to the Lesson Plans that accompany the PBS series, "The Great War." Each group will be presenting from the list of the following lessons:


Expectations: Here are the criteria on which all groups will be evaluated.

  • We'll do the lessons in order, and your group needs to be ready when it is your turn.
  • Anticipate a maximum time of fifteen minutes per lesson, and your group will be expected to present for a minimum of ten minutes.
  • You are not expected to teach the exact lesson as found on the website, as most are much too long. Instead, modify that to what you think you can effectively do in a limited time. You are free to use any of the handouts, web links, etc. (Assume that students will have their computers on the correct lesson if you want them to link to anything. Otherwise, you also have the projector available.) 
  • You do not need to cover all of the content for that lesson. You decide what you find interesting and/or important. You also decide the way in which you want to cover the material. It can be presentation, discussion, student-driven, etc. Part of this assignment involves figuring out how to teach/share information with others. 
  • You are welcome to incorporate additional resources and materials that you find relevant, but there is no expectation that you will do so.
Another very useful site for many of you is the British Broadcasting Company's World War One.

I'm not sure how far we'll get with these next items today, but we'll see what happens.
The Impact of the "Great War"

Initially, let's spend a little time with the two handouts from the last session.
Poems: You were asked to read "Dulce et Decorum Est" by Wilfred Owen and "In Flanders Fields" by John McCrae. Let's hear you reactions to those works.

Genocide: This reading summarized seven acts of genocide probably less familiar to you than the Holocaust of World War II. We'll spend a little time talking about these. Initially, we'll have you break into seven groups, one for each case, for about five minutes. Then, we'll have you come back together to discuss several questions.

Then and Now: The Shaping of the 21st Century: We'll return once more to PBS website The Great War to consider the impact and legacy of this conflict.

We've talked quite a bit about some of the immediate impacts of the war. Let's again brainstorm a list of those. 

Next, we'll look more at how World War I previewed and influenced many of the issues with which we deal today. Then and Now: The Shaping of the 21st Century provides us with a list of these issues. We'll look at those.


HOMEWORK for tomorrow - Wednesday, January 27th

Continue your reading in Chapter 30 with Section 2, "Totalitarianism." (pp. 874 - 879)

Lesson #5 - World War I "Mini-Lessons"

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I hope to get through the majority of the "mini-lessons" on World War I today. We'll go right down the list.

Handouts: Before I forget, I've got a couple of handouts for you today. I think you will find both quite interesting.
Poems: "Dulce et Decorum Est" by Wilfred Owen and "In Flanders Fields" by John McCrae. Both poems are quite famous, and you can readily find analysis of them online. (Here's some context (not analysis) from Wikipedia for both "Dulce et Decorum Est" and "In Flanders Fields.") I want you to read both and then post a comment to this blog entry before our next class. In a paragraph (or more), explain which poem you found more moving and/or powerful and why you made that choice.

Genocide: The Armenian Genocide that took place in the midst of WWI was, unfortunately, only one of a number of acts of genocide in the 20th century (and the 21st). This reading gives you a quick overview of a number of those acts.

Teaching the Great War - Lesson Plans: Here are links to the Lesson Plans that accompany the PBS series, "The Great War." Each group will be presenting from the list of the following lessons:


Expectations: Here are the criteria on which all groups will be evaluated.

  • We'll do the lessons in order, and your group needs to be ready when it is your turn.
  • Anticipate a maximum time of fifteen minutes per lesson, and your group will be expected to present for a minimum of ten minutes.
  • You are not expected to teach the exact lesson as found on the website, as most are much too long. Instead, modify that to what you think you can effectively do in a limited time. You are free to use any of the handouts, web links, etc. (Assume that students will have their computers on the correct lesson if you want them to link to anything. Otherwise, you also have the projector available.) 
  • You do not need to cover all of the content for that lesson. You decide what you find interesting and/or important. You also decide the way in which you want to cover the material. It can be presentation, discussion, student-driven, etc. Part of this assignment involves figuring out how to teach/share information with others. 
  • You are welcome to incorporate additional resources and materials that you find relevant, but there is no expectation that you will do so.
Another very useful site for many of you is the British Broadcasting Company's World War One.


HOMEWORK for next session - Tuesday, January 26th

Begin your reading in Chapter 30 with Section 1, "Revolutions in Russia." (pp. 867 - 873) There will be a reading quiz tomorrow, and the rotation is back to multiple choice.

Please read the handout with the two poems and post your blog comment in reaction before tomorrow's class time.

Please read the overview of 20th and 21st century genocides for tomorrow's class.

Lesson #4 - The Timeline of the "Great War"

We'll start with the quiz, then we will finish up the timeline reports.

Here are the links from yesterday:
Map of European Alliances on the Eve of World War I


Here are a couple of things that we'll take a look at if/as we have time...

Literature of World War I - Probably more than any other conflict, this war produced a rich collection of literature from a wide variety of sources. One book that collected some of the poetry is "The Muse in Arms," which can be accessed at First World War.com. (The earlier link takes you directly to the introduction page. Use the sidebar on the right to access the poems in the 14 different categories.) Your task is to browse around this collection and select a poem that you find interesting.

Propaganda Posters - This is another really interesting aspect of the war. This webpage lists posters by the nation that created them. Your task is to browse around and find an interesting example of the posters from as many different countries as you can. Be ready to share some of the interesting things you find.

Eyewitness to History.Com is a website that features excerpts from people who participated in various historical events. As you might guess, they have an interesting range of short excerpts from participants in World War I. Browse around and read a couple excerpts that really interest you.


Teaching the Great War - Lesson Plans: Remember that these will take place beginning on Monday... We'll plan on going in order, but the assumption is that any group may be asked to present if necessary.

Here are links to the Lesson Plans that accompany the PBS series, "The Great War." Each group will be presenting from the list of the following lessons:


Expectations: Here are the criteria on which all groups will be evaluated.

  • We'll do the lessons in order, and your group needs to be ready Monday when it is your turn.
  • Anticipate a maximum time of fifteen minutes per lesson, and your group will be expected to present for a minimum of ten minutes.
  • You are not expected to teach the exact lesson as found on the website, as most are much too long. Instead, modify that to what you think you can effectively do in a limited time. You are free to use any of the handouts, weblinks, etc. (Assume that students will have their computers on the correct lesson if you want them to link to anything. Otherwise, you also have the projector available.) 
  • You do not need to cover all of the content for that lesson. You decide what you find interesting and/or important. You also decide the way in which you want to cover the material. It can be presentation, discussion, student-driven, etc. Part of this assignment involves figuring out how to teach/share information with others. 
  • You are welcome to incorporate additional resources and materials that you find relevant, but there is no expectation that you will do so.
Another very useful site for many of you is the British Broadcasting Company's World War One.


HOMEWORK for next session - Monday, January 25th

Please finish up the reading in Chapter 29 with Section 4, "A Flawed Peace." (pp. 858 - 861) The quiz will be matching, and we'll continue with that rotation going forward.

Lesson #3 - The Timeline of the "Great War"

We'll spend out time today going through the timeline of events from World War I.

The "Great War" - The Timeline of World War I: Click on the link to download a copy of the matrix that will allow you to take any notes that you'd like as we move through the timeline. (I expect that either this, the maps below or the "Great War" website itself will be the only things we'll see on any computer screens today...)


Expectations: A reminder that these are the things we will be looking for from your group. 

  • You have NO MORE than 12 minutes for your "piece" of the timeline. You will certainly be expected to use at least eight minutes.
  • It is not expected that you cover EVERYTHING on the list. Part of your job is to decide what you think is most important for us to know. Assume your audience will have the relevant page of the timeline in front of them as you present.
  • You will be expected to have AT LEAST three visual images accompanying your information. (You don't need to do a full Powerpoint/Keynote, but there should be pictures/maps/etc. as you believe useful.)

HOMEWORK for Friday, January 22nd

Continue your reading with Chapter 29, Section 3, "A Global Conflict." (pp. 851 - 856) The quiz tomorrow will be true/false.


Lesson #2 - The Timeline of the "Great War"

Basically, you and several partners are going to complete two tasks. Tomorrow and Friday, we're going to walk through a Timeline of World War I. Then, next Monday and Tuesday, each of our groups will have a chance to teach a "mini-lesson" to the rest of the class. Information on both of these can be found below.

Interesting list of the day...The Great War in Numbers


After our quiz, we'll get you organized and give you the balance of the hour to do some preparation. (This will be the only class time you get for the timeline portion.) Our primary online resource will be the website for the PBS series, "The Great War and the Shaping of the 20th Century." I'll definitely have the projector available for you to use if you need it. Let me know if there is anything else you need.

The Great War - Timeline: There are obviously historians who spend a lifetime studying the events of World War I. We basically have a little more than a week of class time. Because I think it is important to have a sense of the way in which the war unfolded, we'll have you divide up the timeline that accompanies this series. There are eight components:

Expectations: Whichever year/period you get, here are the things we will be looking for from your group. 

  • You have NO MORE than 12 minutes for your "piece" of the timeline. You will certainly be expected to use at least eight minutes.
  • It is not expected that you cover EVERYTHING on the list. Part of your job is to decide what you think is most important for us to know. Assume your audience will have the relevant page of the timeline in front of them as you present.
  • You will be expected to have AT LEAST three visual images accompanying your information. (You don't need to do a full Powerpoint/Keynote, but there should be pictures/maps/etc. as you believe useful.)
I would assume most of you will find this more useful tomorrow, but here is a matrix for
The "Great War" - Timeline for World War I. Some of you might find it useful to take some notes in preparation for your part of tomorrow's presentation.


Teaching the Great War - Lesson Plans: Here we'll make use of the Lesson Plans that accompany the PBS series, "The Great War." Each group will select from the list of the following lessons:


Expectations: While individual groups will no doubt do different things, here are the criteria on which all groups will be evaluated.

  • We'll do the lessons in order, and your group needs to be ready when it is your turn.
  • Anticipate a maximum time of fifteen minutes per lesson, and your group will be expected to present for a minimum of ten minutes.
  • You are not expected to teach the exact lesson as found on the website, as most are much too long. Instead, modify that to what you think you can effectively do in a limited time. You are free to use any of the handouts, weblinks, etc. (Assume that students will have their computers on the correct lesson if you want them to link to anything. Otherwise, you also have the projector available.) 
  • You do not need to cover all of the content for that lesson. You decide what you find interesting and/or important. You also decide the way in which you want to cover the material. It can be presentation, discussion, student-driven, etc. Part of this assignment involves figuring out how to teach/share information with others. 
  • You are welcome to incorporate additional resources and materials that you find relevant, but there is no expectation that you will do so.
Another very useful site for many of you is the British Broadcasting Company's World War One.


HOMEWORK for Thursday, January 21st

Continue your reading with Chapter 29, Section 2, "Europe Plunges into War." (pp. 845 - 849) The quiz tomorrow will be fill-in-the-blank.

Your group should be ready to present its share of the timeline tomorrow.


Lesson #1 - "Causes" of the Great War

Welcome back. We'll jump right in today looking at the causes of the "Great War," or World War I. You'll have the first reading quiz tomorrow.  

Current Events: It is safe to say that a lot has happened since we were last together. We can't take all block, but we can certainly talk for a few minutes if you are interested. I've also got a little "quiz" for us to try to see where you are at in terms of your understanding of the geography of the 20th century world we will be studying this quarter.

The Causes of World War I - This will be our main focus for the day. We'll have you start out briefly working with a DBQ packet called, "Causes of World War I." After you take a look at that, we'll break it down a bit more specifically.

Jigsaw activity - While it is pretty clear that the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand triggered World War I, there were underlying factors that made it likely this event could not be contained in the Balkans. You'll look at one of these factors in a group, and we'll form jigsaw groups from there.

In your "expert group," you'll read a short excerpt on one of these:
  • Nationalism
  • Balance of Power / Imperialism
  • Interests of Individual Nations
  • Arms Buildup (Militarism)
As you form the "jigsaw" groups, each of you should share your "school of thought" with the group. Then, your group is to come to a consensus on which TWO of the factors were most important in causing World War I. Someone should be prepared to report these two selections back to the big group.

Literature of World War I - Probably more than any other conflict, this war produced a rich collection of literature from a wide variety of sources. One book that collected some of the poetry is "The Muse in Arms," which can be accessed at First World War.com. (The earlier link takes you directly to the introduction page. Use the sidebar on the right to access the poems in the 14 different categories.)

Your task is to browse around this collection and select a poem that you find interesting. Be sure to have it available in class tomorrow, as you'll be asked to read an excerpt from it.


HOMEWORK for tomorrow - Wednesday, January 20th

This shouldn't be much of a surprise to you. Begin your reading in Chapter 29 with Section 1, "Marching Toward War." (pp. 841 - 844) The quiz format will be multiple choice.

Select one poem that you find interesting from "The Muse in Arms" and have it ready to share in class. 

Q2 - Lesson #39 - Unit #2 Objective Exam

Q2 - Lesson #38 - Unit #6 Identifications Exam

If you plan to word-process, you can download a copy of the Unit #6 Identifications exam.


REMINDER: You must be finished with the identifications before you leave class.
If you would like to start/complete your DBQs, you may also do that in class today.

Unit #6 Identifications: You'll receive (or download) a handout from which you will write on your choice of 5 of the 8 identifications that appear. You may have 10 words of "notes" for each of the 15 possible identifications to the exam. You will need to turn in these notes, and I reserve the right to count symbols, acronyms, etc. as one or more words. Each of the five identifications is worth 5 points.

A good identification is typically in the range of 4 to 6 sentences in length. (You do need to write in complete sentences.) You should demonstrate both an understanding of just who / what the ID "is" and place it in the appropriate historical context. In addition, you need to explain the significance of the ID. In other words, answer the "So what?" question.


HOMEWORK for tomorrow - Friday, January 15th

You have the Unit #6 Objective Exam tomorrow. There are 60 multiple choice questions and five DBQs.

Your Unit #6 Essay should be printed out and turned in to me before you leave school on Friday.

Remember to turn in any additional assignments to me as well... I can take the extra credit up through the weekend.


Q2 - Lesson #37 - Unit #6 "Two-Minute" Review

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We'll spend today doing our review activity. We'll get started right away so that we can get through this all. You can post comments on this blog entry if you'd like to share anything with others. 

UNIT 6: Industrialism and the Race for Empire (1790 - 1914) 

Chapter 25 - The Industrial Revolution (1700 - 1900) 
1 The Beginnings of Industrialization 
2 Industrialization 
3 Industrialization Spreads 
4 Reforming the Industrial World 

Chapter 26 - An Age of Democracy and Progress (1815 - 1914) 
1 Democratic Reform and Activism 
2 Self-Rule for British Colonies 
3 War and Expansionism in the United States 
4 Nineteenth-Century Progress 

Chapter 27- The Age of Imperialism (1850 -1914) 
1 The Scramble for Africa 
2 Imperialism 
3 Europeans Claim Muslim Lands 
4 British Imperialism in India 
5 Imperialism in Southeast Asia 

Chapter 28 - Transformations Around the Globe (1800 - 1914) 
1 China Resists Outside Influence 
2 Modernization in Japan 
3 U.S. Economic Imperialism 
4 Turmoil and Change in Mexico 


HOMEWORK for tomorrow - Thursday, January 14th

We'll have the Unit #6 Exam on Thursday and Friday. Thursday will be the Identifications, and you are allowed to bring ten words of notes for each. On Friday, we'll have the Objective Exam. That will consist of multiple choice questions and some document-based questions. Your essay should be printed out and turned in no later than at your arrival to the exam on Friday. You can find the essay questions and possible identifications here.

Q2 - Lesson #36 - The Mexican Revolution

A reminder that your Current Events #2 are due today.

This is our last "regular" lesson of the quarter, and we'll turn our attention to the Mexican Revolution of the early 20th century. Wednesday will be our Unit #6 "Two-Minute Reviews," and we'll wrap up with the Unit #6 Exam on Thursday and Friday. (Thursday is the Identification Exam, and the Objective Exam is Friday. You need to turn in the Unit #6 Essay Exam no later than your arrival for class on Friday.) More information below on this.

The Mexican Revolution: As you probably picked up from the reading for today, the events in Mexico leading up to, and including, the revolution are very complex. We'll try to make sense of this in two different ways after we take a quick look at some major events.

Timeline - The Road to Revolution:

1821 - Mexico gains independence from Spain
1833 - 1855 - Santa Anna serves four times as president
1835 - Texas settlers revolt against Mexico
1845 - United States annexes Texas
1848 - Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends Mexican-American War
1861 - Benito Juarez becomes president following civil war
1862 - France sends army, holds power for five years
1876 - 1911 - Porfirio Diaz rules Mexico
1910 - Francisco Madero calls for revolution, Diaz steps down
1911 - Madero becomes president
1913 - General Huerta takes power, Madero assassinated
1915 - Huerta overthrown, Carranza takes power
1917 - Mexico adopts constitution
1919 - Carranza turns on revolutionary allies, ends war

"Campaigning for Power": This seems particularly appropriate right after an election year here. The premise is this: It is early in 1910, and the country of Mexico is planning an election for President of Mexico. You are on the campaign staff for one of the figures below. You need to come up with a single sheet "poster" for your candidate. Obviously, it should make clear something about what he stands for, promises to do, or whatever seems appropriate. You can decide whether to use color, pictures, graphics, etc., but it should be in a form you can show on the projector and/or email to me.

  • Benito Juarez (He's dead by then, but he deserves a poster...)
  • Porfiro Diaz
  • Francisco Madero
  • Pancho Villa
  • Emiliano Zapata
  • Victoriano Huerta
  • Venustiano Carranza

Artists Look at the Revolution: We'll try something a little different here with these five artists. All of them were influenced by the events of the Mexican Revolution in one way or another. Your job is to find at least TWO works by "your" artist that you feel show us something meaningful about Mexico from the time that we are studying. Make sure you can readily access these at the projector. You decide what background information we need, etc.

In some cases, I've also listed a particular work by the artist. You don't NEED to make that one of your choices, but they were identified elsewhere as being influenced by the Mexican Revolution.

  • Jose Guadalupe Posada - Catrina Calavera
  • Diego Rivera
  • Frida Kahlo
  • David Alfaro Siqueiros - Echo of a Scream
  • Jose Clemente Orozco - Father Miguel Hidalgo

Homework for tomorrow - Tuesday, January 12th    

Your China "Choose Your Assignments" are due Wednesday

Your Unit #6 "Two-Minute Review" will be also due on Wednesday.

The Unit #6 Exam will take place on Thursday and Friday. On Thursday, you must complete the Identifications portion of the exam. On Friday, you must complete the Objective Exam.

Q2 - Lesson #35 - The United States and Latin America

We'll have our final "regular" lessons today and tomorrow. Wednesday will be our Unit #6 "Two-Minute Reviews," and we'll wrap up with the Unit #6 Exam on Thursday and Friday. (Thursday is the Identification Exam, and the Objective Exam is Friday. You need to turn in the Unit #6 Essay Exam no later than your arrival to class on Friday.) More information below on this.

A reminder that you should have posted your "Blog-a-thon" entry on the correct lesson.

Unit #6 "Two-Minute Review": Our review activity will take place on Wednesday.

Current Events #2
: Your final batch of Current Events for the quarter are due Tuesday.


The United States in Latin America:
Even a casual reading of the assignment for today should make it clear that the United States has a long record of intervention in Latin America. I have not checked all examples on this site for accuracy or anything, but here is a long list of United States interventions in Latin America.

We'll have you look at some editorial cartoons on US foreign policy towards Latin America here as well.

Specifics of which you should be aware:

Discussion: United States Foreign Policy - Then and Now
We've talked, directly and indirectly, about a number of events in the history of American foreign policy over the last couple of weeks. Some of them were quite noble and well-intentioned, others were less so. Here's your chance to talk about events from both then and now.

First, let's focus on "then."
  • Was the United States being imperialistic when it issued the Monroe Doctrine? Why or why not?
  • Was "manifest destiny" justified? Why or why not?
  • Did the US act appropriately in the Mexican-American War? Why or why not?
  • Were US actions in Spanish-American War justified? Why or why not?
  • Were US actions in securing land for and building the Panama Canal appropriate? Why or why not?
  • Was the Roosevelt Corollary justified? Why or why not?
Second, let's turn to the "now."
  • What "limits" should there be on United States' foreign policy? What tools, tactics and strategies are appropriate? Which should not be considered?
  • What external factors should influence our foreign policy decisions? Why?
  • Are we imperialistic? Should we be?
  • What sort of relationship should we pursue with the nations of Latin America?
  • Is it time to end our economic embargo on Cuba?
  • Should we grant Puerto Rico independence? Statehood?
  • Were we correct to turn the Panama Canal Zone over to Panama's control in 1977?

Homework for tomorrow - Tuesday, October 27th:     

Finish your reading for the quarter in Chapter 28 with Section 4, "Turmoil and Change in Mexico." (pp. 822 - 827) The quiz format will be true/false.

Your China "Choose Your Assignments" are due Wednesday

Your Unit #6 "Two-Minute Review" will be also due on Wednesday.

Your Current Events #2 are due on Tuesday. You can find the template on earlier blog entries.

The Unit #6 Exam will take place on Thursday and Friday. On Thursday, you must complete the Identifications portion of the exam. On Friday, you must complete the Objective Exam. Your Unit #6 Essay is due (printed out and double-spaced) no later than your arrival to class on Friday. More information on the exam is available on the entry immediately preceding this one on the blog.

Unit #6 Exam - Identifications and Essay Questions

Unit #6 Identifications: On Thursday, January 14th, you will write on your choice of 5 of the 8 identifications that appear on the Unit #6 exam chosen from the list below. You may bring 10 words of "notes" for each of the 15 possible identifications to the exam.  (Printed out, not on your computer.) You will need to turn in these notes, and I reserve the right to count symbols, acronyms, etc. as one or more words. Each of the five identifications is worth 5 points.  

A good identification is typically in the range of 4 to 6 sentences in length.  (You do need to write in complete sentences.)  You should demonstrate both an understanding of just who / what the ID "is" and place it in the appropriate historical context.  In addition, you need to explain the significance of the ID.  In other words, answer the "So what?" question.

Adam Smith
Karl Marx
Dreyfus Affair
manifest destiny
Emancipation Proclamation
Henry Ford
Thomas Edison 
Social Darwinism
Berlin Conference
Crimean War
Sepoy Mutiny
Opium War
Taiping Rebellion
Meiji era
Monroe Doctrine


Unit #6 Essay Exam - Questions and Format - You'll  write an essay as part of the Unit #6 Exam. This essay will be turned in by the beginning of class on Friday, January 15th.  (You will have the class period on Thursday AFTER you finish the identifications, but that is the only class time that will be allotted.) Below you can find both the questions from which you will choose and the format for the essay portion on the Unit #6 Exam. The essay will be evaluated on the usual 30 point scale.

Format: The actual essay will be written by hand or word-processed. You should prepare for a five-paragraph essay. That means that you should include an introduction (with a clear thesis statement), three body paragraphs, and a concluding paragraph. (Note that the questions lend themselves to such a format. That is on purpose.)  

Remember that the questions are not designed for you to tell us everything you have learned. Focus on what the question is requiring you to do.  

CHANGES for this one:
* You write this outside of class time.
* I want them printed out (double spaced, please.) Printing double-sided is fine.

1. The Industrial Revolution was a time of great change. Identify and explain the significance of the THREE most important ways in which the Industrial Revolution impacted the world. Overall, was the Industrial Revolution a positive or negative stage in the history of the world? Why?

2. The Age of Imperialism had strong impacts on many areas of the world. Choose ONE of these areas and identify and explain the significance of the THREE most important ways in which imperialism impacted that area. Overall, was the Age of Imperialism a positive or negative stage in the history of the world? Why?

NOTE: For question #2, I would recommend choosing from one of these areas:
  • Africa
  • Middle East
  • India
  • East Asia and the Pacific
In your body paragraphs, do not mix and match from various areas. In that concluding paragraph, you are free to make references to imperialism on a more "global" level.

Q2 - Lesson #34 - Japan Modernizes

I guess we were two days early... CNN has added a feature to their "Afghanistan Crossroads" website on the Philippine-American War. They argue that this conflict is a better parallel to our current involvement in Afghanistan than is Vietnam. It's a pretty interesting read.

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

We'll wrap up this week with a look at Japan's modernization of the 19th century. I've found some new resources that are very visual and pretty interesting. 

The "Red-Haired Barbarians" - Japanese woodblock prints
As you might remember, Japan was largely isolated (by choice) from the industrializing world. The Dutch were the only Europeans allowed access to Japan for trade, and that was restricted to the port of Nagasaki. Here's a collection of 40 Japanese woodblock prints depicting Dutch traders and the perceptions of the Japanese of foreigners.

Do this:  Take a few minutes and browse the collection, looking for interesting images. Following that, we can talk about what you've seen.

The West Arrives - Commodore Perry 
In 1853, a US naval fleet entered Japan's main harbor with a letter from US President Millard Fillmore for the Japanese emperor.


Do this: Read the President's letter. Put yourself in the position of Japan's emperor and/or the shogun and briefly outline your response. We'll talk about that a bit. After that, take a look at the Treaty of Kanagawa to see what was decided.

Browse around this very cool site from MIT's "Visualizing Cultures" project: Black Ships and Samurai. Be sure you look at the "Visual Narratives" and watch the "Black Ship Scroll" unfold.

The Meiji Restoration
In 1868, the Tokugawa Shogunate ended when Emperor Mutsuhito began his 45-year reign known as the Meiji era, or the Meiji Restoration.


Do this: Read through the Charter Oath of the Meiji. What role do citizens play in this new vision of government? Does this strike you as democratic?  Why or why not?

Now, skim through the Meiji Constitution of 1889. How well were the promises of the oath fulfilled? To what degree are these documents influenced by the Enlightenment? Are they democratic?  Why or why not?


MIT's "Visualizing Cultures" 
I'd never seen this site before the night before last year's class on this topic, and I have to say that it is pretty cool. It aims to "wed images and scholarly commentary in innovative ways to illuminate social and cultural history." By coincidence, their first units focus on the time period in Japanese history that we are studying. This is the kind of resource that makes the laptop program worthwhile.

Do this: You'll work with a couple others to look more closely at one of the following "units" and give us a short recap of what you found most interesting. Definitely do the "visual narratives" section.


Homework for next session - Monday, January 11th

Please continue your reading in the final chapter of the quarter. Read Chapter 28, Section 3, "U.S. Economic Imperialism." (pp. 816 - 821)

The "Cartoons: Industrialization and Imperialism" assignments and the quiz for Chapter 27, Section 3 are due today.

Your "Blog-a-thon" entry is due by the start of school on Monday, January 11th.

Your second and final batch of Current Events will be due on Tuesday, January 12th. It will be the same format as last time. You can download a template and find the information about the assignment back on Lesson #30.

It would be great if I got the China Create-An-Assignments turned in by next Wednesday as well. You can certainly email them to me as attachments as well.

Q2 - Lesson #33 - China and the World

Our focus for these next two days will be on the way in which China and Japan emerge, or are forced to emerge, from periods of relative isolation. Today it will be China, and tomorrow's focus will be on Japan. We'll do two more lessons on America's economic imperialism and the Mexican Revolution next week. That's it for our first quarter together. I'll have Unit #6 Exam information available tomorrow.

China and the World - Introduction
We'll spend a few minutes together here at the top to make sure you have at least a basic understanding of some of the key events from China's history in the 19th century. Remember that they had largely chosen a path of isolation once the Age of European Exploration began.

At a minimum, you should be familiar with:

  • Qing Dynasty (1644 - 1911)
  • Opium War (1839)
    • Treaty of Nanjing (1842)
    • Hong Kong
    • extraterritorial rights
  • Taiping Rebellion (1850 - 1864)
    • Hong Xioquan
  • Open Door Policy
  • Boxer Rebellion (1900)
    • Dowager Empress Cixi

19th Century China - Learning by Doing
Here's your chance to decide which way you want to go about learning some more about events from 19th century China. You have three choices that are described below. Because I believe they have varying degrees of difficulty and complexity, I am making them worth different numbers of points.

It works like this. The assignment is worth 10 points. Here are the values for the different options.

  • China Crossword - You CAN receive up to 10 points for work that meets all expectations.
  • Opium War: Primary Sources - You CAN receive up to 11 points for work that goes beyond the basic expectations. That is done at my discretion.
  • Make-your-own-China-DBQ - 10 points for solid work that meets all expectations. You CAN receive up to 12 points for work that goes beyond the basic expectations. That is done at my discretion.
In all of these cases, you can work in a group of up to 3 people if you would like. I need all of these assignments turned in by the end of Wednesday to get full credit. Since I won't necessarily know who is working with whom, I need all names of group members to be on the completed assignment.

Here are the particulars for the given assignments:

China - Crossword:
Use any of the readily available crossword puzzle makers from the Internet. (Note: You do this at your own risk. I make no allowances for complaints like, "The website didn't work," or "We couldn't figure out how to print it.")

You need at least 15 clues and answers drawing from the material in Chapter 28, Section 1 and related topics. I should get both a "blank" puzzle with clues and a completed copy of the clues from you.

Opium War: Primary Sources:
This is just what it sounds like. You'll get a copy of documents from both the British and the Chinese related to the Opium War. You are responsible for submitting answers to the six "Questions" (pp. 290 - 291), as well as to at least one of the "For Further Discussion" questions (p. 291).

Make Your Own DBQ:
This is your chance to create your own document based question on sources related to 19th century China. You can do either a general look at the period or a more specific focus on a particular period or event or person.

Here are the required elements:
  • There needs to be a "question." (It's the "big picture" under which the documents all fit, or it is the essay topic from the ones we've looked at in class.)
  • There should be a paragraph of relevant historical background information.
  • You need to provide excerpts from at least five relevant documents. Documents can include quotations, excerpts, maps, photographs, letters, laws and perhaps more. (Each should have a question to be answered, as do the ones we've used in class.)
  • All documents must be identified by author, title and date as necessary.
  • The DBQ should be reasonably free of spelling and grammar errors.
You're free to use any appropriate sources, but here are two suggested places to do some looking...

  • China's Disaster: 1840 - 1949 - a portion of Paul Halsall's vast collection of on-line primary sources
  • Asia for Educators - This site from Columbia University has a lot of information in various places around the site. (Check China - 1750 to 1914 as a start.)

Homework for tomorrow - Friday, January 8th

Please continue your reading in the final chapter of the quarter. Read Chapter 28, Section 2, "Modernization in Japan." (pp. 810 - 813) The quiz will be multiple choice.

Please return the quiz for Chapter 27, Section 3 by tomorrow.

The "Cartoons: Industrialization and Imperialism" assignments are due tomorrow. You can find the directions for that way back on Lesson #25.

Your "Blog-a-thon" entry is due by the start of school on Monday, January 11th.

Your second and final batch of Current Events will be due on Tuesday, January 12th. It will be the same format as last time. You can download a template and find the information about the assignment back on Lesson #30.

It would be great if I got the China Create-An-Assignments turned in by next Wednesday as well. You can certainly email them to meas attachments as well.

Q2 - Lesson #32 - Imperialism in Southeast Asia

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We'll continue our "world tour" on imperialism by looking at events in Southeast Asia, including involvement by the United States.

The Colonial Ledger: You were asked to brainstorm a list of effects of colonialism. Let's talk about what you came up with, and I can share some others from a source I've used before with this activity.

Crucible of Empire - The Spanish-American War: This is another great PBS site that chronicles the beginning of the United States' dealing with their own supporters and opponents of imperialism. There are a number of things here that might interest you. Check out some of these:

1895 - Cuban War for Independence
August 1896 - Revolt in the Philippines
February 16, 1898 - Battleship U.S.S. Maine Explodes
April 25, 1898 - Congress Declares War
May 1, 1898 - Commodore Dewey's Victory in the Philippines
March 23, 1901 - Aguinaldo captured by U.S. troops

America in the Philippines: After acquiring the Philippines from Spain as a result of the war, The United States needed to consider the issue of imperialism. Led by President McKinley's call to "educate Filipinos, and uplift and Christianize them," the Americans stayed in the islands. Fierce resistance broke out among Filipino rebels, and a brutal three-year war followed. While over 4000 American soldiers died from fighting and disease, it is estimated that somewhere between 250,000 and 500,000 Filipinos died as a result of the fighting.

The Philippine History Site has a number of good resources on The Philippine-American War.

  • American Designs and the Benevolent Assimilation tells of the plans to bring the Philippines under American control while also containing some interesting information about how US textbooks do/don't cover this issue.

  • You don't have to read much of the American Campaign of Brutality to understand the parallels many have drawn to a conflict the United States found itself involved in much later, the Vietnam War.

The White Man's Burden In 1899, Rudyard Kipling wrote this poem to mark the annexation of the Philippines. Read through the entire poem and see what you think of it, particularly in terms of Kipling's view of imperialism. We'll talk about this one a bit.

"Kipling, the 'White Man's Burden,' and US Imperialism" (Monthly Review, November 2003) is a challenging, but very interesting article that looks at Kipling's poem in light of recent events in American history and foreign policy. It's really thought-provoking.

Blog-a-thon: We're going to end today by giving you some choices. Basically, you're responsible for posting a blog comment on one of the topics by 8:30 on Monday morning. Post it to THIS blog entry.

Choose and post a good blog comment on one of these:

  • Read the article, "American imperialism? No need to run away from the label." (USATODAY.com, 5/5/2003) Comment on the article and the main issues it raises in your mind.

  • Read the essay, "Shooting an Elephant," by George Orwell. (He's probably best known as the author of 1984 and Animal Farm.) This essay draws on some of the ideas we've been talking about these last few days. Comment on the essay and how you think it is/is not relevant to the Age of Imperialism.

  • "Yellow Journalism" played a role in the imperial debate in the United States and elsewhere. Put yourself in the role of a "yellow journalist" and choose one of these scenarios from which to write a brief "story" for your readers.
- British journalist in India during Sepoy Mutiny of 1857
- British journalist in South Africa during the Boer War
- American observer in the Philippines in 1900
- American journalist in Hawaii in 1893


HOMEWORK for next session - Thursday, January 7th
 
Please begin your reading in the final chapter of the quarter. Read Chapter 28, Section 1, "China Resists Outside Influence." (pp. 805 - 809)

Please return the quiz for Chapter 27, Section 3 by Friday of this week.

The "Cartoons: Industrialization and Imperialism" assignments are due Friday. You can find the directions for that way back on Lesson #25.

Your "Blog-a-thon" entry is due by the start of school on Monday, January 11th.

Your second and final batch of Current Events will be due on Tuesday, January 12th. It will be the same format as last time. You can download a template and find the information about the assignment back on Lesson #30.

Q2 - Lesson #31 - British Imperialism in India

Let's wait until tomorrow to check in on your "colonial ledgers." Instead, we'll head over to India to look at the age of British rule and its effects, largely through a debate format.

British Imperialism in India - Brief Timeline

1707 - Mughal Empire is collapsing
1757 - East India Company troops win at Battle of Plassey
1857 - Sepoy Mutiny takes place
1858 - Raj begins as British take direct control of India
1877 - British viceroy rules India
1885 - Indian National Congress Forms
1905 - Partition of Bengal into Hindu and Muslim sections
1947 - India gains independence

The Sepoy Mutiny: Here's a website from Emory University that takes a look at the events of the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857. To better understand what this was all about, you might want to browse some of the following sections:

  • Introduction
  • Religion
  • Divide and Conquer
  • Expansionism
  • Torture and Oppression
  • The Rebellion
  • The Cawnpore Massacres
  • The Siege of Delhi
  • Conclusion

Debate
: You'll be asked to represent one of the two sides in a brief debate on the resolution below. I'll provide you with an additional set of information for "your" side that should be helpful, and you will have some time to look at the resources below.

** On balance, the era of British rule was beneficial for India. **

Download a copy of the Imperialism in India flowsheet to help keep track of arguments. Keep in mind there is a distinction between facts, interpretations made about facts, and judgments made on the basis of an interpretation. All have a place in a discussion or debate, but be aware of the way in which they differ.

An example might be:
Fact: "We take daily reading quizzes in World History 10."
Interpretation: "Mr. Vergin thinks it is important that we read and understand the material."
Judgment: "Mr. Vergin is mean because I'd rather be playing in the yard than doing the reading."

We'll hold this informal, large-group debate during the last thirty minutes of class.

DBQ Activity - Imperialism in India: An Evaluation Spending a little time with both these document excerpts and the primary sources below will help you with our culminating activity, a brief debate on the impact of British rule on India.

Primary Sources on India: Here are a number of primary sources related to the British rule in India. Some might be particularly useful for our conversation, and others are simply provided for your information.


HOMEWORK for tomorrow - Wednesday, January 6th
 
Please finish your reading in Chapter 27 with Section 5, "Imperialism in Southeast Asia." (pp. 796 - 799)

I'll give you the quiz for Chapter 27, Section 3. Treat it like a take-home assignment. I'd like that back by Friday of this week.

The "Cartoons: Industrialization and Imperialism" assignments are due Friday. You can find the directions for that way back on Lesson #25.

Your Current Events #2 are due next Tuesday, January 12th. You can find the instructions and template on yesterday's blog entry.

 

Q2 - Lesson #30 - The Colonial Era in Africa

Welcome back. We'll take a few minutes to return some work to you and make sure everyone gets the plan for the final two weeks of the quarter.

Current Events: You'll do a second batch for this quarter, again with the AP World History themes as your guide. As with last time, you can download a Current Events template. You'll be expected to follow the format very closely. These are again worth a total of 20 points. Current Events #2 will be due at the start of class on Tuesday, January 12th.

Here's the extra credit option for those of you who are interested. (Note that it is also found as a "page" to the right of the blog.)

We introduced the topic of imperialism last session, largely through our look at the Scramble for Africa. Today, we'll continue along this general theme, taking more of a look at the colonial era that followed. Tomorrow, we'll turn our attention to India.

Let's make sure we have the basic language of imperialism down. There are four major forms of imperialism:
  • colony
  • protectorate
  • sphere of influence
  • economic imperialism
Make sure you've got a solid understanding of the two basic "styles" on imperial rule:
  • indirect control
  • direct control
Here are a couple of interesting graphs from the Statistics on the Extent of European Colonialism.

Let's spend about ten minutes with a DBQ activity that provides a solid overview of imperialism in Africa.

The Colonial Era: We touched upon a number of these issues last time we met, so I'll share with you a set of my old notes on the Colonial Era in Africa that might be useful in the activities that follow. In particular, let's look at the various ways in which people responded to colonialism.

The Colonial Ledger: This is simple. Click on the title to download a simple chart. A "ledger" is a book used in accounting and elsewhere to keep track of transactions. Here, you are asked work with two or three others to brainstorm a list of effects of colonialism. Some may be positive, while many are certainly negative. Try also to classify them as economic, political and social. You should have a total of at least 8 impacts, with some in each of the six categories.


Primary Sources on Imperialism: Here are a number of primary sources related to imperialism. Some are ones we will work with, and others are simply provided for your information.


Colonialism in 10 Minutes - Scramble for Africa - This is a YouTube clip from a recently released documentary film, Uganda Rising. I think it does a good job of giving you a quick overview of the Scramble for Africa, while it also links the past to the present in the country of Uganda very effectively.


The Congo - Then and Now: We mentioned last week that the Congo has had a turbulent history from King Leopold II to the present. Here's an article from last year updating the situation for you. Basically, estimates are that as many as 5.4 million people have died due to "Africa's First World War" over the past decade. Congo's Death Rate Unchanged Since War Ended - The New York Times, January 23, 2008. If you want a more in-depth understanding of this very complicated event, check out Chaos in Congo: A Primer from The New York Times in 2000.

HOMEWORK for tomorrow - Tuesday, January 5th

We'll CHANGE the reading order here. I'll get you the Chapter 27, Section 3 quiz to do as a take-home assignment. Please continue your reading in Chapter 27 with Section 4, "British Imperialism in India." (pp. 791 - 795) My New Year's Resolution is to continue giving you reading quizzes. We'll do the 27.4 quiz tomorrow to start class.
 
Just a reminder that the "Cartoons: Industrialization and Imperialism" assignments are due on Friday, January 8th. You can find the directions for that back on Lesson #24.


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